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IC, also called electronic circuits, microchips, or chips, are designed and manufactured by semiconductor manufacturers.
IC is the most important part of the RFID tag. Choosing RFID IC determines carrier frequency, maximum read distance, memory size, function, coding scheme, security, and sometimes air interface.
RFID TAG products have been packaged in different forms. You can already use the environment, cost, required storage capacity, and choose the ic that suits you.
RFID chips can be classified into three categories based on the frequency range they are used to transmit data: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and ultra-high frequency (UHF). In general, the lower the frequency of the RFID system, the shorter the reading range and the slower the data reading rate.
|Item||Low Frequency（LF）||High Frequency (HF)||Ultra-High Frequency (UHF)|
|Frequency Range||30 to 300KHz||3 to 30MHz||300 MHz to 3GHz|
|Common Frequency||125 KHz or 134 KHz||13.56MHz (NFC)||860 to 960 MHz(UHF Gen2)|
|Read Range||≤30 cm||≤10 cm||≤100 m|
|Benefits||Minimal infection by metals and liquids||High storage capacity and higher encryption security||Lower cost, fast reading over long distances, and group reading|
|Applications||Animal tracking,automobile inventorying,Access Control||Anti-counterfeiting, packaging and labeling, contactless payment, library management||Inventory control,item-level tracking,supply chain visibility and efficiency|
Maximum read range 1.5 M - Special Antenna and Tags - 2 meters
|MIFARE Plus EV2(2K)||2K Byte||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|MIFARE Plus EV2(4K)||4K Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|MIFARE Plus SE(2K)||2K Byte||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|MIFARE Plus SE(4K)||4K Byte||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|MIFARE Plus X(2K)||2K Byte||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|MIFARE Plus X(4K)||4K Byte||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|NTAG 213||144 Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|NTAG 215||504 Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|NTAG 216||888 Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|NTAG 213 Tag Temper||144 Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|NTAG 424 DNA||416 Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|NTAG 424 DNA Tag Tamper||416 Bytes||ISO14443A||Read&Write||Download|
|ICODE SLIX||896 bits||ISO15693/ISO 18000-3M1||Read&Write||Download|
|ICODE SLIX 2||2528 bits||ISO15693/ISO 18000-3M1||Read&Write||Download|
|ICODE SLIX-L||256 bits||ISO15693/ISO 18000-3M1||Read&Write||Download|
|ICODE SLIX-S||1280 bits||ISO15693/ISO 18000-3M1||Read&Write||Download|
|ICODE DNA||2016 bits||ISO15693/ISO 18000-3M1||Read&Write||Download|
Maximum read range 10 meters - Special Antenna and chips - 15 meters or more
|MONZA 4QT||128 bit epc,512 bit user||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|Monza 5||128 bit epc,32 bit user||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|Monza R6||96bit epc||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|Monza R6-P||96bit epc,32 bit user||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|UCODE 7||128 bit epc||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|UCODE 7m||128 bit epc||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|Ucode 8||128 bit epc||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|Ucode 8m||96 bit epc,32 bit user||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
|UCODE DNA||224bit epc,3072 bit user||EPC Class1 Gen2/ISO 18000 6C||Read&Write||Download|
What Is RFID Chip? An RFID chip is a microchip that uses radio waves to transfer data to a reader. It is the smallest part of an RFID tag yet the most important as it holds the memory for data storage.
The chip is mostly located centrally and surrounded by a coiled wire, known as an antenna. The antenna is responsible for passing radio waves from the chip to the reader. When the tag is powered, it releases electromagnetic waves containing the required information.
RFID chips are used in access management, security access, library systems, time tracking (via electronic logging), identification documents, or medical records.
In 1982 Harry Stockman proposed that if every object had a unique identifier, then it would be possible to identify and track specific items using radio waves. This idea would later revolutionize inventory management and identification systems. He published his findings in the technical journal, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques later that same year.
In 1994 the Auto-ID Lab was established at MIT by Professor Sandy Pentland and Researcher David Brock (who coined the term “RFID”). Their research led to the development of EPCglobal Incorporated – an organization responsible for standardizing RFID technology globally. They created a new numbering system known as EPC (electronic product code). EPC tags were designed to replace barcodes altogether because of their greater range of functionality and improved security features, such as encryption.
By the end of 2000, companies such as Gillette, Procter & Gamble, Motorola, and UPS began trialing RFID technology in their supply chain management setups. In 2002 alone more than 110 million items were tagged for inventory purposes via RFID chips which transmitted data to electronic hand-held devices carried by workers across the warehouse floor.
There are two types of RFID chips (tags) available in the market – active and passive. The difference between them is that active ones have their power sources whereas passive chips get energy from the electromagnetic field of a reader.
The chips consist of unique integrated circuits which can be recognized by radio waves from a reader device. Once powered, the RFID chip will transmit data back to the reader. A reader can transmit radio waves to the tag’s antenna up to 100m away.
RFID chips use certain standards that make them compatible with each other. So, one device will read any standard-compliant tags nearby, no matter which company manufactured it.
An RFID chip consists of an integrated circuit which is typically made using silicon and packaged in a small case with an antenna. This usually resembles a small grain of rice or sand.
There are three components in an RFID device:
The tag contains information unique to each item, while the transponder receives energy from the reader unit through electromagnetic induction and transmits it back via radio waves.
The purpose of this electronic transaction between the reader and transponder is to identify objects quickly by providing their electronic product code (EPC) number along with other information stored on the tag’s memory chip.
An RFID system has two units – one at either end of the communication link.
Communication from the reader unit to the transponder occurs via electromagnetic induction using high-frequency radio signals which can penetrate various materials such as plastic, wood, and concrete without any loss of signal intensity. The RFID tag picks up this energy signal and uses it for its internal power supply, thereby increasing its transmission range.
Reader devices form a part of a much larger system that also includes the host computer to which they are attached. In almost all cases, this device is linked using wireless networks to other computers as well as various databases from which it can extract information relevant to its role in an access control network.
For example, if a door reader reads a tag, it not only identifies and authenticates the user but also stores their specific permissions and time signatures. This helps to monitor the human traffic accessing restricted areas. It also guarantees accountability among visitors and staff members.
There are two different types of RFID chips currently available on the market:
In some cases, RFID chips can be implemented as either silicon or PCB technology depending on their intended use.
Just like RFID chips, there are different types of RFID readers. For example, a label printer (which may also incorporate an antenna to transmit data) can only print new labels for already identified items. On the other hand, pallet scanners (used for high-speed stock control) look like ceiling-mounted scanners and use long-range antennas to identify tags across wide areas at very high speeds.
Specializing in wireless technology, RFID chips enable communication between items. With a variety of operating frequencies to choose from ranging from low frequency (LF) to ultra-high frequency (UHF), as well as microwave capabilities, this cutting-edge tech is changing the way we interact with our world.
The primary function of identification is authentication: verifying that people and goods are who they claim to be. This process must balance three factors:
RFID chip identification is simple and efficient. Every authorized individual must hold an RFID tag that contains all their details on the chip. For them to be allowed access, an RFID reader will scan the tag, receive data, and compare it with an existing database. If they match, then the individual is allowed access, and vice versa.
When items that contain embedded RFID tags move through an exit point in a supply chain management system, they pass by one or more reader devices.
Each time, the tag’s unique serial number is transmitted to the reader where it is decoded into its original data, translated into human-readable form, and then transmitted to a central database for storage. This process is the same regardless of the type of reader device being used.
When an electromagnetic signal is transmitted, it propagates through space in a wave-like pattern. This concept forms the basis for all wireless communication systems, such as cordless phones, FM radio, cellular telephony, and various other long and short-range communication schemes that we use every day.
The strength and direction of any given signal will vary according to several factors such as:
Since RFID signals have low power, they face many penetration challenges when encountering sources of interference. As such, they require proximity to the reader for information to be passed (usually up to 100 meters).
Additionally, information stored in the RFID chip is encrypted. As such, cybercriminals can have access to the information unless they steal the specifically assigned RFID reader.
RFID chips can be used in many different applications such as:
RFID operates well in open spaces where there are few physical obstructions to interfere with signal transmission, its performance is not so good when it comes to passing through walls, floors, or even tightly packed goods. This explains why RFID has not replaced barcodes where items are stacked on top of each other.
However, RFID is the best for tagging large objects that are unlikely to move around too much during transportation (such as vehicles). They have better storage than barcodes, which makes them ideal for tagging goods that require a lot of data for identification.
For example, an RFID tag can store data such as the last stock date, the last purchase, the manufacturing date, and the batch number among other crucial information. On the contrary, a barcode is prone to environment-related destruction and stores little information. These factors have made RFID technology replace barcodes in many applications.
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